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Open-Sourcing Tester: Lightweight Go Test Utilities

March 6th, 2017 in

At Voicera, we strive for building world-class software at a high iteration velocity. We heavily rely on open-source software; it allows us to build for scale while standing on the shoulders of giants. Our tech stack aligns with our culture and values, which foster an environment for code craftsmanship to thrive and a strong bias for action. We’re pleased to kick off our engineering blog posts with open-sourcing Tester: a lightweight test library that we built for Go; a small token of giving back to the open-source community and fellow Gophers.

Go is the programming language of choice for many of our microservices; it provides the greatest return on investment for our needs: security, correctness, simplicity, iteration velocity, scalability, and maintainability. Testing is an integral part of Go; the language provides robust and opinionated support for testing and benchmarking. However, developers who moved from languages like C#, Java, and Python miss the convenience of test utilities like assertions and data providers for data-driven tests. That’s why we started Tester: lightweight test utilities to use with Go’s testing package. Most tests follow the same pattern: set up, invoke the unit under test, assert, then clean up (if need be); said pattern encourages test code reuse and consistency. By using test utilities, you can spend more time thinking about test strategies and less time typing boilerplate code.

Features

  • Assertions that make tests easier to read, write, and debug
  • Streamlined data providers for data-driven testing (DDT)
  • Test hooks’ hygiene check

Quick Start

Get the latest version go get -u github.com/workfit/tester then test away:

package hitchhiker

import (
    "testing"

    "github.com/workfit/tester/assert"
)

func TestDeepThought(t *testing.T) {
    computer := NewDeepThoughtComputer()
    answer, err := computer.AnswerTheUltimateQuestion()
    if assert.For(t).ThatActual(err).IsNil().Passed() {
        assert.For(t).ThatActual(answer).Equals(42)
    }
}

More Examples

The following can also be found at https://godoc.org/github.com/workfit/tester.

Assertions

Package assert provides a more readable way to assert in test cases; for example:

assert.For(t).ThatCalling(fn).PanicsReporting("expected error")

This way, the assert statement reads well; it flows like a proper sentence. Also, one can easily tell which value is the test case got (actual) and which it wanted (expected); this is key to printing the values correctly to make debugging a bit easier. In Go, the actual value is usually printed first; for example:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(foo).Equals(expected)

The above enforces said order in both reading the code and the assertion failure message (if any). For convenience (that also improves readability), there are methods for special cases like:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(foo).IsTrue()
assert.For(t).ThatActualString(bar).IsEmpty()

Which are equivalent to:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(foo).Equals(true)
assert.For(t).ThatActual(len(bar)).Equals(0)

To identify a test case in a table-driven test, optional parameters can be specified and will be included in failure messages:

cases := []struct {
    id       string
    actual   interface{}
    expected interface{}
}{
    {"different values", 42, 13},
    {"different types", 42.0, 42},
    {"different containers", [...]int{42}, []int{42}},
}

for _, c := range cases {
    assert.For(t, c.id).ThatActual(c.actual).Equals(c.expected)
}

After an assertion is performed, a ValueAssertionResult is returned to allow for post-assert actions to be performed; for example:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(value).Equals(expected).ThenDiffOnFail()

That will pretty-print a detailed recursive diff of both objects on failure. It also can be used as a condition to perform extra test steps:

value := GetValue()
if assert.For(t).ThatActual(value).IsNotNil().Passed() {
    assert.For(t).ThatActual(value.GetFoo()).Equals(expected)
}

Or to perform a deeper analysis of the test values:

if !assert.For(t).ThatActual(value).Equals(expected).Passed() {
    analyze(value, expected) // e.g., analyze may look at common bugs
}

Conveniently, the last example above can be rewritten as:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(value).Equals(expected).ThenRunOnFail(analyze)

Another use is to print a custom failure message:

assert.For(t).ThatActual(foo).Equals(bar).ThenRunOnFail(func(actual, expected interface{}) {
    fmt.Printf("JSON: %q != %q", actual.ToJSON(), expected.ToJSON())
})

The above pattern allows for reuse of post-failure analysis and cleanup.

Test Hooks

What exists merely for test code to see shall not be exported to the world. Tester enables you to tag test-hook fields like the following:

type sleeper struct {
    sleep func(time.Duration) `test-hook:"verify-unexported"`
}

Using tags, instead of comments, enables you to search the codebase for test hooks and validate, via reflection, that they’re not exported. A test case should be added to verify that test hooks are hidden:

func TestHooksAreHidden(t *testing.T) {
    assert.For(t).ThatType(reflect.TypeOf(sleeper{})).HidesTestHooks()
}

Data-Driven Testing (DDT)

When the number of test cases in a table-driven test gets out of hand and they cannot fit neatly in structs anymore, the use of a data provider is in order. Package ddt provides a way to load test cases from a JSON file whose path is derived from the caller’s test function name and file. The file path is <package under test>/_ddt/<basename of test file>.json; for example, hitchhiker/_ddt/question_test.json with the following schema:

{
    "testFunctions": {
      "<name of test function>": [
        {
          <properties of the test case to unmarshal>
        }
      ]
    }
}

For example, the JSON content may look like the following:

{
    "testFunctions": {
    "TestDeepThought": [
      {
        "id": "The Ultimate Question",
        "input": {
          "question": "What do you get when you multiply six by nine?",
          "timeoutInHours": 65700000000,
          "config": {"base": 13}
        },
        "expected": {
          "answer": "42",
          "error": null
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

The details of the test case struct are left for the tester to specify.

Future Work

This is merely the beginning of tester; we will be adding more utilities down the road starting with more assertions. We welcome your contributions and suggestions. We hope that you find this useful; if so, give it a go 🙂

P.S. We’re hiring.

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